Isolating the wet spots in tissue paper and also measuring the area can give us a clue about the quality of the liquid or the quality of the tissue paper. Similar problems arise in health and hygiene applications.
To explore the possibilities on solution to this problem we will attempt to implement Deep Learning techniques In this project to see how we can identify and calculate the wet areas in a tissue paper image.
What are we building?
We are building a deep learning model using python code with Tensorflow API.
What can it do?
The model can take an image that contains tissue papers (left image) and show us if there are wet areas (right image) on it using blue colored splashes.
The output also prints out the wet area percentage with respect to the total tissue paper area of the image.
How does it do it?
The model uses a technique which is popularly known as Instance Segmentation in computer vision. It also uses object detection technique along with that. This is possible by using the Mask RCNN algorithm.
This algorithm was developed by the Facebook AI Reasearch Team to do object detection and instance segmentation. To know everything with deeper understanding go to this link on github.
Object detection is a technique that draws a rectangular box around an object and labels it with a predefined class and a confidence score. Example below:
For object detection the Mask RCNN algorithm relies on the Faster RCNN network which is in-built into the algorithm.
This step isolates the pixels associated with each object into separate groups. Example:
After we get the tissue paper mask, we need to apply one more algorithm to get the wet areas from the mask and color splash only on those spots. The code is defined in the tissue.py file and looks like following:
# ========================= # create a CLAHE object (Arguments are optional). img_yuv = cv2.cvtColor(image, cv2.COLOR_BGR2YUV) # convert the YUV image back to RGB format clahe = cv2.createCLAHE(clipLimit=3.0, tileGridSize=(6,6)) # equalize the histogram of the Y channel img_yuv[:,:,0] = clahe.apply(img_yuv[:,:,0]) img_yuv = cv2.cvtColor(img_yuv, cv2.COLOR_YUV2BGR) hsv = cv2.cvtColor(img_yuv, cv2.COLOR_BGR2HSV) blur = cv2.medianBlur(hsv,51) mask_dry = cv2.inRange(blur,(0, 0, 190), (255, 255, 255)) overlay = image.copy() outimg = image.copy() # overlay[mask_dry==0] = (200, 80, 200) overlay[mask_dry==0] = (10, 180, 200) # overlay[mask_dry>0] = (10, 180, 200) # apply the overlay cv2.addWeighted(overlay, 0.5, img_yuv, 0.5, 0.8, outimg)
This piece of code extracts the wet area from the tissue paper region and colors them blue and also enhances the contrast of the final image.
How to build this?
To build a model that can work on our own images and objects, there are few steps we have to follow:
1. Collect pictures:
We need to collect as many pictures as possible that contain the objects we want to recognise. Usually, we can start by collecting few hundred images (say 200). In our specific case it is pictures of the tissue papers which may be wet or dry in a variety of ways. By ‘ways’ I meant the followings:
- different tissue papers are wet in different areas
- a tissue paper may not be wet at all
- the liquid can be of different colors or colorless
- pictures can be normal or cropped
- pictures are taken from different angles
- pictures are taken in various light and shadow conditions
- pictures are taken with different backgrounds
- tissue papers may be plain or folded or softly crumbled
- tissue papers should not be so crumbled like a ball that it loses its sheet like shape
- tissue papers should not be so wet that the whole sheet looks like a transparent plastic sheet
- tissue papers should not completely melt in the liquid
2. Prepare the dataset
Now that we have the pictures, we have to prepare them for the algorithm.
To feed the images to the algorithm they have to go through the following process:
a) Divide the images into two sets:
We have to divide the images into two folders, namely train and val. A ratio of 80% training and 20% validation images is prefered.
b) Image annotation and labeling:
Image annotation is a process where we draw regions on the objects of our interest and label them accordingly.
To do this we make use of the image annotation tools. In our case we will be using the open source VIA tool provided by Oxford University. Download the app as shown below:
Then we extract the downloded file and open the via.html file
In this web app we can open all the images we want to train the model on.
Then draw regions on them and also specify a class name. So, we opened all the images and create a class named “tissue_paper”, like shown:
We the start by drawing a polygon on the first image, surrounding the tissue paper by selecting the polygon tool.
We draw multiple regions for multiple tissue papers. An example is shown below:
We then draw regions on all the images and click on save project icon. A json file will be downloaded by the browser. We need to copy this file to the images folder and rename it to
We need to do this process for both of the image sets separately.
3. Train the model
By now we should have a dataset directory like this:
|-dataset | |-train | | |-1.jpg ... | | |-via_region_data.json | |-val | | |-1.jpg ... | | |-via_region_data.json
Install conda from this link if not already installed.
Now we clone the github repo: https://github.com/Rajat-Roy/tissue_paper
git clone https://github.com/Rajat-Roy/tissue_paper.git
navigate into the code folder:
To start a conda environment execute:
conda create --name tissue python=3.7
conda activate tissue
pip install -r requirements.txt
Now copy the dataset directory into this directory.
To start training execute the following command:
python train_model.py train --dataset=./dataset/ --weights=coco
model training will now start and print the progress…
after the model training completes we will have a model file inside the logs directory named :
Copy this file to the code root directory.
If model training stops for any reason we can resume it by running this command:
python train_model.py train --dataset=./dataset/ --weights=last
Congratulations! Model training is complete.
How to run this?
To run on Google Colab with zero setup, open this notebook and follow the instructions on the notebook.
You can just press
Ctrl+F9 to run all the cells at once and scroll down to see the outputs like below once execution is completed without doing anything else.
To run locally follow these steps:
We can run the code on new image within the jupyter notebook. Execute the following code in the conda prompt to open it:
A jupyter app will open in the browser. Click on the file named
tissue_demo.ipynb. The notebook will open. Make sure the file names and paths are correct. Run all the code cells from the menu option or press alt+Enter to execute cell by cell. You will see a result like this:
Total image area: 960x1200 pixels Total tissue paper area: 1152000 pixels (100%) Wet area: 58.23% (blue) Dry area: 41.77% (white)
Congratulations again on running the first test.
Now you can keep on testing on other images by changing the filename in the last code cell and running only that cell.
Are the results accurate?
1. The results can be quite accurate most of the time, but it also suffers from the fact that shadows and wet patches look alike and can confusingly splash blue color on the dark areas mistaken for wet areas.
2. The model also fails to properly tell when the entire tissue paper is completely soaked in water and there is no dry area left.
3. It also fails to recognise tissue papers that are heavily transparent and hard to separate from the background.
In future, I would like to implement a different approach.
The first stage in the pipeline would be to extract the tissue paper area like before. This will make things easier for the next stage.
The second stage will be to recognise wet spots in a variety of classes not just one single class for all types of spots. This will minimize the confusion and increase accuracy.